NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Maths Chapter 12 – Introduction to Three Dimensional Geometry Ex 12.3

Question 1:

Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining the points (–2, 3, 5) and (1, –4, 6) in the ratio (i) 2:3 internally, (ii) 2:3 externally.

(i) The coordinates of point R that divides the line segment joining points P (x1y1z1) and Q (x2y2z2) internally in the ratio mare
.
Let R (x, yz) be the point that divides the line segment joining points(–2, 3, 5) and (1, –4, 6) internally in the ratio 2:3
Thus, the coordinates of the required point are.
(ii) The coordinates of point R that divides the line segment joining points P (x1y1z1) and Q (x2y2z2) externally in the ratio mare
.
Let R (x, yz) be the point that divides the line segment joining points(–2, 3, 5) and (1, –4, 6) externally in the ratio 2:3
Thus, the coordinates of the required point are (–8, 17, 3).

Question 2:

Given that P (3, 2, –4), Q (5, 4, –6) and R (9, 8, –10) are collinear. Find the ratio in which Q divides PR.

Let point Q (5, 4, –6) divide the line segment joining points P (3, 2, –4) and R (9, 8, –10) in the ratio k:1.
Therefore, by section formula,
Thus, point Q divides PR in the ratio 1:2.

Question 3:

Find the ratio in which the YZ-plane divides the line segment formed by joining the points (–2, 4, 7) and (3, –5, 8).

Let the YZ planedivide the line segment joining points (–2, 4, 7) and (3, –5, 8) in the ratio k:1.
Hence, by section formula, the coordinates of point of intersection are given by
On the YZ plane, the x-coordinate of any point is zero.
Thus, the YZ plane divides the line segment formed by joining the given points in the ratio 2:3.

Question 4:

Using section formula, show that the points A (2, –3, 4), B (–1, 2, 1) and are collinear.

The given points are A (2, –3, 4), B (–1, 2, 1), and.
Let P be a point that divides AB in the ratio k:1.
Hence, by section formula, the coordinates of P are given by
Now, we find the value of k at which point P coincides with point C.
By taking, we obtain k = 2.
For k = 2, the coordinates of point P are.
i.e.,  is a point that divides AB externally in the ratio 2:1 and is the same as point P.
Hence, points A, B, and C are collinear.

Question 5:

Find the coordinates of the points which trisect the line segment joining the points P (4, 2, –6) and Q (10, –16, 6).