Understanding Laws NCERT Class 8 Social and Political life

Understanding Laws NCERT Class 8 Social and Political life

Q1. Who make laws for a country?
Ans.  Our  representative  in  the  Parliament  makes  laws  for  the  country  implemented  by executive.

Q2. How were the laws made in ancient period?
1.      In ancient India, there were innumerable and often overlapping local laws.
2.      Different communities enjoyed different degrees of antinomy in administering these laws among their own.
3.      In some cases, the punishment that two persons received for the same crime varied depending on their caste background with lower casts being more harshly penalized.

Q3. Who introduced the rule of law in India?
Ans. It is believed that it was the British colonialists who introduced the rule of law in India.

Q4. Who made laws for India in colonial period?
Ans. The British made the laws for India in Colonial period.

Q5. Who has the power to modify laws?
Ans. The parliament has the power to modify or cancel laws it it finds that they don’t adhere to the constitution.

Q6. Give one example to show that British law was arbitrary.
 One example of arbitraries that continued to exist as part of British law is the sedition act of 1870. The idea of sedition was understood within this act. Any person protesting or criticizing the British government could be arrested without due trial.

Q7. What did the Indian nationalists do against the arbitrary laws of British?
a)      Indian nationalist began protesting and criticizing this arbitrary use of authority by the British.
b)      They began fighting for greater equality and wanted to change the idea of law from a set of rules that they were forced to obey, to law as including ideas of justice.
c)      By the end of 19th century ,Indian legal profession also began emerging and demanded respect in colonial courts.

Q8. Why were the new laws against domestic violence introduced?
a)     The law recognizes the right of women to live in a shared household,  protection against violence women can get monetary relief to meet their expense  including medical costs.
b)      Women wanted protection against being beaten, and the right to continue living in a shared household. Thus, the law against domestic violence was introduced to address these issues.

Q9. Which groups took the lead of domestic violence bill?
Ans. Lawyers collective, a group of lawyers, law students and activities, after nation-wide took the lead in drafting the domestic violence (Prevention and Protection).
in the following terms
·         Sedition:- This applies to anything that the government might consider as stirring up rebellion against it. In such cases, the government does not need absolute evidence in order to arrest persons.

·         Repressive:- To control severely in order to prevent free and natural development or expression. It refers to laws that brutally control persons and often prevent them from exercising their fundamental rights.

·         Rule of Law:- It means that all laws apply equally to all citizen of the country and no one can be above the law. Neither a government official, nor a wealthy person nor even the president of the country is above the law.

·         Domestic Violence:- It refers to the injury or harm or threat of injury or harm caused by an adult male usually the husband, against his wife. Injury may be caused by physically beating up the woman or by emotionally abusing her. Abuse can also include verbal, sexual and economic abuse.

Q11. What are unpopular and controversial laws?
1. Unpopular laws: - The laws which are constitutionally valid and hence legal but are unpopular and unacceptable to people because they feel that the intention behind it is unfair and harmful. Eg. Municipal laws.
2.   Controversial laws: - The laws which favour one group and disregard the other.

Q12. How can people express their discontent against unpopular laws in a democracy? 
Ans. People can criticize the unpopular law, hold public meetings, and write about it in newspaper report to 74 news channels. In their way, citizens can express their unwillingness to accept repressive laws framed by the Parliament.

Q13. What is the role of citizen in formulation of new laws?
·         The role of citizens is crucial in helping Parliament frame different concerns  that people might have into laws.
·         From establishing the need for a new law to its being passed, at every stage of the process the voice of the citizen is a crucial element. The voice can be heard- through
T.V. reports, newspaper editorials, radio broadcasts and local meetings.
·       We should elect our representatives to Parliament carefully. Then we should use newspapers and the media to chart the work that is being done by our M.P.s and critic their actions when we feel it is required.
·       Our involvement and enthusiasm helps  Parliament  perform  its  representative functions properly.
·       Citizens can oppose the bills introduced in Parliament by organizing a press conference.
·       Citizen can protest, campaign or show solidarity against the laws which they feel are just and unfair.

Understanding Laws NCERT Class 8 Social and Political life Extra Questions

Mention the different categories under which Law can be classified.
Some of the categories under which law can be classifies are…
Criminal law
Contract Law
Property Law
International law
Equity and Trust Laws
Write a short note on Lady Justice.
Lady Justice or Justitia is the Roman Goddess of Justice. It is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system. Her blindfolded eyes symbolize equality under the law and impartiality towards all the people who are governed by it. The weighing scales represent the balancing of people’s interests under the law, and her sword denotes the law’s force of reason.
Mention some of the common laws that govern us.
Some of the common laws that govern us are…
The age at which a person can vote
Specific age for marriage
Laws governing the selling and buying of property
What is a constitution?
A Constitution is a document outlining the basic laws or principals by which a country is governed.
State Article 14 of the Indian constitution
Article 14 – Equality before law.—The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.
How was the system of law during ancient times in India?
In ancient India, there were countless and overlapping local laws. Different communities were given the liberty to enforce the laws according to their need. In some cases, the punishment that two persons received for the same crime varied depending on their caste. The lower castes were punished more harshly.
When was the Hindu Succession Amendment Act revised?
The Hindu Succession Amendment Act was revised in 2005.
What was the Sedition Act?
According to the Sedition Act of 1870 any person protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested without due trial.
Write a brief note on the Rowlatt Act.
The Rowlatt Committee was a Sedition Committee appointed in 1918 by the British Indian Government with Mr. Justice Rowlatt, an English judge, as its president.
The Rowlatt Act, also known as the Black Act, was instituted on the Rowlatt Committee’s recommendations. It had a significant impact on the political situation of India, placing her on a path of political movement headed by Gandhi that ultimately dominated the Indian Independence movement for the next 20 years. The Act gave the Viceroy’s government powers to quell sedition by silencing the press, detaining the political activists without trial, and arresting without warrant any individuals suspected of sedition or treason. In protest, a nationwide cessation of work was called, marking the beginning of widespread, although not nationwide, popular discontent.
The agitation unleashed by the Act culminated on 13 April 1919, in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar, Punjab.
How is a new law introduced in Parliament?
Parliament of India consists of the President and two Houses—the Council of States or the Rajya Sabha and the House of the People or the Lok Sabha.
A Bill can be introduced in either House of Parliament. A Bill introduced by the Minister is known as Government Bill and a Bill introduced by a private member is known as Private Member’s Bill.
The procedure for the passage of the Bills is similar in both the cases. A Bill has to pass through three stages in each House of Parliament and receive Presidential assent before it becomes an Act of Parliament. In the event of a deadlock between the two Houses on a Bill, the issue is resolved at a joint sitting of the two Houses.

Courtesy : CBSE